Site Development Foundations

  • The ALIGN attribute of the IMG tag specifies the alignment of an object with the adjacent text. If no alignment is specified for the image, it is left aligned, by default, and the related text appears to the right of the image.
  • Animated Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) is a type of GIF image that can be animated by combining several images into a single GIF file.
  • Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) is a file format preferred for photographic images. A color JPEG image stores 24 bits per pixel.
  • Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) is the most common file format for images used on Web pages.
  • Portable Network Graphics (PNG) is a file format for the lossless, portable, well-compressed storage of raster images. PNG files can store colors with 8, 24, or 48 bits per pixel and gray scales with 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 bits per pixel.
  • The A HREF tag is used to create a link to a Web page.
  • Each HTML tag in an HTML document is represented as an element object.
  • The A tag is used with an HREF parameter, representing the target Universal Resource Locater (URL) for the hyperlink.
  • The BMP and TIFF image file formats are not supported by most of the Internet browsers.
  • Block-level tag is an HTML element that affects an entire paragraph. Paragraph or a block quote is an example of a block-level tag.
  • Attributes describe certain aspects of an element that decide how the content is displayed in browser. Each element used in HTML has certain attributes associated with it.
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  • The following are variants or Document Type Definitions (DTD) of HTML version 4.0:
    • HTML 4.0 Transitional: It allows the use of deprecated tags and attributes such as APPLET, DIR, MENU, etc. Deprecated tags and attributes are those that are no longer preferred to be used.
    • HTML 4.0 Strict: It is used to keep an HTML document focused on the structural markup at the core of HTML, leaving it free of any tags associated with layout.
    • HTML 4.0 Frameset:It is used only for frameset documents.
  • The ALT attribute is an HTML attribute that sets a text alternative to a graphic in a Web page. The text replaces the graphic for text-only browsers.
  • The browser will approximate the colors using dithering.
  • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) forms are the most commonly used methods of getting information from Web site visitors.
  • DIV is an HTML tag that groups a series of elements into a larger group. It can be used when an action needs to be performed collectively on the grouped elements. The DIV tag acts as a container for other elements.
  • The FRAMESET tag specifies a frameset used to organize multiple frames and nested framesets in an HTML document. It defines the location, size, and orientation of frames.
  • The TD tag is used to specify each cell of the table.
  • The WIDTH attribute of the TABLE tag is used to set the width of a table. Width can be specified in pixels and percentage.
  • The ALIGN attribute aligns the table within the text flow. By default, alignment is set to left.
  • The BORDER attribute of the TABLE tag is used to set the width of the table border.
  • TD is a tag used to specify cells in a table.
  • The container tag uses opening and closing tags. The DIV and B tags are examples of container tags. In the container tag, a user can write the content in between the opening and closing tags.
  • Empty tags need only opening tags.
  • In HTML, the COLSPAN attribute is used for merging cells on a horizontal row.
  • The blockquote tag is used to define a quoted, indented text block.
  • The Cellpadding attribute is used to set the space in pixels, between the cell border and its content.
  • The COLSPAN attribute is used to span one column across many columns. COLSPAN is an attribute of TD and TH tags, which allow a single column in a table to take space that is occupied by several columns.
  • The METHOD attribute specifies which method the browser will use, Get or Post, to process FORM data. The ACTION attribute specifies the CGI script used to process FORM data.
  • Inline scripting is a method of scripting in which the script is embedded within the HTML tags of a Web page. It provides control to a Web page when events, such as button click, text entry, form submission etc., occur. Inline scripting is also used to provide information to a Web page from the Web server.
  • Nesting tables is a technique in which one or more tables are embedded within a table.
  • Absolute size of frames is expressed in pixels. Size is expressed in terms of the number of pixels in a frame. Therefore, a change in the screen area of a display device does not affect the absolute frame size of a Web page.
  • The MARGINHEIGHT and MARGINWIDTH attributes are used in the tag to adjust the top and left margins of a Web page to be displayed in Netscape navigator.
  • HTML 4.0 includes features that improve accessibility for physically challenged users. It includes the following support features:
    1. Style sheets
    2. Internalization features
    3. Accessibility features
    4. Enhanced tables and forms
    5. Scripting and multimedia
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  • Frames are extensions of the HTML 3.2 standard introduced by Netscape. Elements such as navigation links and title graphic can be placed in static individual frames.
  • The frame tag defines the contents that will appear in each frame. It is used within the frameset tag. Frames allow users to display multiple HTML files at a time.
  • Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) provides formatting instructions for XML documents.
  • The GetXml method of the DataSet class returns the XML representation of data from a DataSet.
  • The XmlDocument class represents the top node of an XML document.
  • An XML document must have only one top-level element known as document element or root element. Each element must have both a start tag and an end tag.
  • An attribute me must begin with a letter or an underscore. A string value assigned to an attribute is delimited using either single quotes or double quotes.
  • Processing instructions are used to pass information to applications. They are not required to strictly follow internal syntax and may include markup characters without escaping them.
  • The merchant account is used for credit card processing. A merchant is a person or organization that sells goods or services to the cardholder.
  • A Web-based application uses Data Source me (DSN) to connect to a database. DSN is a logical mean used by Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) to refer to connection information required to access data.
  • The planning phase is essential to the success of a Web development project. During the planning phase, the developer identifies the project goals, performs feasibility study, and determines the content to be presented.
  • An intranet is a private network that is contained within an enterprise. Intranet is used to share company information and computing resources among employees. It is also used to facilitate working in groups and for teleconferencing.
  • Interactivity means conversational exchange of input and output between a user and a computer. An interactive Web site is one that takes input from a user and responds accordingly.
  • Text hyperlink is the most appropriate and simplest way for creating links. In a text hyperlink, a piece of text is linked to other Web pages.
  • A Java applet is a software program written in Java language. It is distributed as an attachment in a Web document and executed in a Java-enabled Web browser.
  • JavaScript and Perl can be used to create and store cookies on client computers.
  • A cookie is a small bit of text that accompanies requests and pages as they move between Web servers and browsers. It contains information that is read by a Web application, whenever a user visits a site.
  • Digital signature is a personal authentication method based on encryption and authorization codes.
  • Click pattern is a route through which a user has visited and surfed a Web site.
  • Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is a set of standards for controlling the exchange of business documents, such as purchase orders, invoices, and sales orders, between organizations. This standard is used for American domestic trade. EDI is based on X12 standard.
  • A payment gateway is a combination of software and hardware, which provides an interface to the bank card processing network.
  • PHP, Perl, and ASP.NET are server-side scripting technologies. Some other server-side scripting technologies are ColdFusion and Python.
  • Perl, .NET, and PHP are examples of the application programming interface (API).
  • In order to ensure that the Web pages render properly on the Internet browser, users will have to use HTML code validators. An HTML code validator checks the HTML source code for errors and gives suggestions for correcting the errors.
  • A Webmaster is responsible for updating the Website and checking for broken links on the Web pages. He must be able to plan and successfully implement a security plan to prevent hackers from unauthorized access. He must also be able to monitor the performance of the Website like downloading time etc.
  • An RDBMS database contains several tables that are related to each other through a primary key and foreign key combination. Managing data in RDBMS is easy for Webmasters.
  • Open Buying on the Internet (OBI) is a standard process that identifies how a company makes a purchase through the Internet from a selling company.
  • Open Trading Protocol (OTP) defines standards to enable a consistent framework for multiple forms of electronic commerce.
  • Digital signature is a personal authentication method based on encryption and authorization codes.
  • B2C stands for business-to-consumer. B2C involves transactions conducted between businesses and consumers over the Internet.
  • SQL stands for Structured Query Language. It is used for requesting information from a database. It also contains statements for inserting, updating, and administering data and objects in a database.
  • Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is a standard that defines a way for an application program to communicate with the database server.
  • Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) is an application programming interface (API) developed by Sun Microsystems.
  • Java database connectivity (JDBC) is a common base application programming interface (API), developed by Sun Microsystems Inc., for accessing data from a database.
  • ODBC provides a standard method of accessing databases by inserting a database driver as a middle layer between the database management system and database application to translate requests and commands.
  • The structure of a database system is called a schema. It is a collection of database objects, such as tables, views, sequences, synonyms, clusters, indexes, database links, procedures, functions, and packages.
  • Each record in a database is termed as a row. It represents a single, implicitly structured data item in a table. Each row in a table represents a set of related data.
  • Schema refers to the structure of a database. It is a database definition containing information about all the objects in a database, such as tables, columns in each table, and the relationships between tables in a relational database.
  • A table is said to be in 3NF if it is in 2NF. In addition to this, every attribute that is not part of the primary key should be directly dependent only on the primary key, and there should be no transitive dependency among the attributes.
  • In a relational database, non-key dependency is eliminated by making the table up to 3NF.
  • Canonical me (CME) is a resource record that creates an alias for the specified Fully Qualified Domain me (FQDN). It hides the implementation details of a network from the clients that are connected to the network.
  • Bandwidth is a term used to describe the amount of information or data that can be carried on a network at a time.
  • A Web server cannot update the technology of a Web site by itself. The technology used in a Web page can only be updated by the owner of the Web site.
  • Clustering is a way of grouping multiple Web servers to handle heavy traffic.
  • A site map is a Web page that contains a hierarchical list of links of all the major sections of a Web site.
  • According to the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DCMA), selling code-cracking devices or software on an e-commerce site is not permitted.
  • The credit card issuing company has violated the Privacy law. According to the Internet Privacy law, a company cannot provide their customer’s financial and personal details to other companies.
  • Monitoring the computer hard disks or e-mails of employees pertains to the privacy policy of an organization.
  • Digital Millennium Copyright Act was passed by Congress and then signed by the President. Title II, the Online Copyright Infringement Limitation Act, sets clear guidelines through which an ISP will not be held for copyright infringement by following specific guidelines dictated by the new law.
  • A copyright is a form of intellectual property, which secures to its holder the exclusive right to produce copies of his or her works of original expression, such as a literary work, movie, musical work or sound recording, painting, photograph, computer program, or industrial design, for a defined, yet extendable, period of time.

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